Theory that a monarch’s legitimacy ultimately resides in the people. 10th c. B.C.
The declaration that human worth is acquired by merit and not inherited. 4th–3rd c. B.C.
Philosophical critique of social hierarchy. 4th c. B.C.
The principle that law should apply to all men irrespective of status. 4th–3rd c. B.C.
Ethical system derived from “nature” rather than revelation. 4th c. B.C.
Theory that crime is the result of poverty and neglect rather than sin. 4th c. B.C.
Theory that successful government must conform to the people’s will. 3rd c. B.C.
Separation of the office from the man, or public from private. 3rd c. B.C.
Administrative and budgetary separation of court from state. 2nd c. B.C.
Theory that politicians should serve the people, not vice-versa. (4th c. B.C.) 9th c.
Elaborate institutional checks on government. 10th c. A.D.
Theory of religious toleration. 11th–12th c.
Empirical studies movement. 17th c.
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